tình mẫu tử

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A human mother holds up her child.
Mother sea lion and pup.
A mother Yellow-bellied Marmot kissing her pup.

A maternal bond is the relationship between a mother and her child. While typically associated with pregnancy and childbirth, a maternal bond may also develop in cases where the child is unrelated, such as an adoption.

Both physical and emotional factors influence the mother-child bonding process. In separation anxiety disorder a child becomes fearful and nervous when away from a loved one, usually a parent or other caregiver. New mothers vì thế not always experience instant love toward their child. Instead, the bond can strengthen over time, or fail vĩ đại develop. Bonds can take hours, days, weeks, or months vĩ đại develop.[1]


The maternal bond between a woman and her biological child usually begins vĩ đại develop during pregnancy. The pregnant female adapts her lifestyle vĩ đại suit the needs of the developing infant. At around 18 vĩ đại 25 weeks, the mother begins vĩ đại feel the fetus moving. Similar vĩ đại seeing her child for the first time in an ultrasound scan, this experience typically leads the mother vĩ đại feel more attached vĩ đại her child.

The developing fetus has some awareness of the mother's heartbeat and voice and has the ability vĩ đại respond vĩ đại touch or movement. By the seventh month of pregnancy, two-thirds of women report a strong maternal bond with their unborn child.[1]

Some mothers who did not want the pregnancy may not have a close relationship with the child.[2] They are more likely vĩ đại suffer from post-partum depression or other mental health problems and less likely vĩ đại breast feed.[2]


Childbirth is an experience that can strengthen the mother and child bond. Factors such as a traumatic birth, the mother's childhood, medical stress, lack of tư vấn and the influence of a spouse or partner can weaken the bond.

Emotional bonding theory first appeared in the mid-1970s,[3] and by the 1980s had become an accepted phenomenon. Soon, the process became analyzed and scrutinized vĩ đại the point of creating another term – poor bonding.

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Production of oxytocin during childbirth and lactation increases parasympathetic activity. Thus, anxiety is theoretically reduced. Maternal oxytocin circulation is said vĩ đại predispose women vĩ đại bond and show bonding behavior,[4][5] although this has been disputed.[6]

Breastfeeding is also strongly believed vĩ đại foster the bond, via touch, response and mutual gazing.[7]

Maternal separation anxiety[edit]

Beginning at 9–10 months of age when infants begin vĩ đại crawl and then when they begin vĩ đại walk around 12 months of age, they begin vĩ đại develop capacities vĩ đại physically explore the world away from their mother.[8] These capacities bring with them separation anxiety as the infant becomes more vulnerable away from mother. This newly acquired motor development parallels infants' intellectual curiosity, cognitive and language development as they begin vĩ đại point and name, and jointly attend with mothers vĩ đại their environment beginning by 9–10 months. Most parents welcome these explorations and this increased independence. However, in the context of maternal depression, trauma or disturbed bonding in her own early life, some mothers have significant difficulty in tolerating the exploration and-or the infant's anxiety.[9]

This anxiety increases when infants and toddlers feel threatened or socially reference their mothers for reassurance. Research claimed out that mothers, for example, with histories of violence-exposure and post-traumatic stress show less activity in the medial prefrontal cortex, a brain area that helps vĩ đại temper and contextualize fear responses, and thus are likely unable vĩ đại extinguish their own fear response upon watching a videotaped mother-toddler separation scene in a magnetic resonance imaging scanner.[10]

Child Separation Anxiety[edit]

Inevitably, children who have rarely been separated from their mother become anxious when separated for extended periods. This is most commonly experienced when starting vĩ đại attend school. Separation anxiety can cause children vĩ đại be unable vĩ đại be open vĩ đại new experiences such as attending school regularly. There is a relationship between child separation anxiety and school refusal.[11]

Later in life, this anxiety can reoccur if mothers have vĩ đại leave their family unit vĩ đại work. In both cases, the child's anxiety (and that of the parents) can be reduced by priming, i.e. preparing the child for the experience prior vĩ đại its occurrence and by creating and maintaining dialogue and connection between the absent parent and child during the separation. Many children may experience such anxiety through various forms.[12] Child separation anxiety may be a learned behavior which can occur over time initiating from innate fears.[13]

Xem thêm: mua bảo hiểm y tế tự nguyện

See also[edit]

  • Postpartum confinement
  • Human bonding
  • Paternal bond
  • Cinderella effect
  • Mother's boy
  • Babywearing, co-sleeping
  • Breastfeeding and mental health


  1. ^ a b Winkler J (January 2000). "[Development of the maternal bond during pregnancy]" [Development of the maternal bond during pregnancy]. Casopis Lekaru Ceskych (in Czech). 139 (1): 5–8. PMID 10750284.
  2. ^ a b "Family Planning – Healthy People 2020". HealthyPeople.gov. Retrieved 2011-08-18. This reference cites:
    • Logan C, Holcombe E, Manlove J, et al. (May 2007). The consequences of unintended childbearing: A white paper (PDF) (Report). Washington: Child Trends. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 2, 2010. Retrieved March 3, 2009.
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  5. ^ Gray PB (2010). "The Evolution and Endocrinology of Human Behavior: Differences and Reproduction.". In Muehlenbein MP (ed.). Human Evolutionary Biology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 277–292 (282). doi:10.1017/CBO9780511781193.020. ISBN 978-1-139-78900-4.
  6. ^ Fillod O (2014). "Oxytocin as proximal cause of 'maternal instinct': weak science, post-feminism, and the hormones of mystique". In Schmitz S, Höppner G (eds.). Gendered neurocultures: feminist and queer perspectives on current brain discourses. challenge GENDER, 2. Wien: Zaglossus. ISBN 9783902902122.
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  11. ^ Tekin, Işıl; Aydın, Selami (November 2022). "School refusal and anxiety among children and adolescents: A systematic scoping review". New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development. 2022 (185–186): 43–65. doi:10.1002/cad.20484. ISSN 1520-3247.
  12. ^ Wehry, Anna M.; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Hennelly, Meghann M.; Connolly, Sucheta D.; Strawn, Jeffrey R. (July 2015). "Assessment and Treatment of Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents". Current Psychiatry Reports. 17 (7): 52. doi:10.1007/s11920-015-0591-z. ISSN 1523-3812. PMC 4480225. PMID 25980507.
  13. ^ Masson, Céline (2001). "Le supplice des mères : le fil de l'angoisse transgénérationnelle". Cliniques méditerranéennes. 64 (2): 135. doi:10.3917/cm.064.0135. ISSN 0762-7491.