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|Literal meaning||start of summer|
|Vietnamese alphabet||lập hạ|
Lìxià (literally "start of summer" or "inauguration of summer") is the 7th solar term according to lớn the traditional Chinese lunisolar calendar, which divides a year into 24 solar terms (節氣).
It begins when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 45° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 60°. The word Lixia most often refers specifically to lớn the first day of this period, the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 45°. In the Gregorian calendar, this is around May 5, and the Lixia period ends with the beginning of the next solar term, Xiaoman, around May 21.
Lixia signifies the beginning of summer in Chinese culture, and due to lớn the importance of summer in the agrarian society of ancient Trung Quốc, the day is associated with many cultural traditions, which vary by region.
Each solar term can be divided into three pentads (候). They are the first pentad (初候), second pentad (次候), and last pentad (末候). Lixia's pentads are:
- First pentad: simplified Chinese: 蝼蝈鸣; traditional Chinese: 螻蟈鳴; pinyin: lóu guō míng – crickets start to lớn chirp
- Second pentad: Chinese: 蚯蚓出; pinyin: qiūyǐn chū – earthworms come out
- Last pentad: Chinese: 王瓜生; pinyin: wángguā shēng – melon plants begin to lớn bear fruit
According to lớn the ancient Book of Rites, on Lixia the emperor would lead the Three Ducal Ministers, the Nine Ministers, and senior officials in greeting the summer, and the day was celebrated with gifts and music. From James Legge's translation:
In this month there takes place the inauguration of summer. Three days before this ceremony, the Grand recorder informs the son of Heaven, saying, 'On such-and-such a day is the inauguration of summer. The energies of the season are most fully seen in fire.' On this the son of Heaven devotes himself to lớn self-purification; and on the day, at the head of the three ducal ministers, the nine high ministers, and his Great officers, he proceeds to lớn meet the summer in the southern suburbs. On their return, rewards are distributed. He grants to lớn the feudal princes (an increase of) territory. Congratulations and gifts proceed, and all are joyful and pleased. Orders are also given to lớn the chief master of music to lớn teach the practice of ceremonies and music together. Orders are given to lớn the Grand Peace-maintainer to lớn recommend men of eminence, allow the worthy and good to lớn have không tính tiền course and bring forward the tall and large. His conferring of rank and regulation of emolument must be in accordance with the position (of the individual).
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A number of Lixia traditions relate to lớn food. Some traditions symbolize neighborliness, including a traditional Lixia food, "seven-family porridge" (Chinese: 七家粥; pinyin: qī jiā zhōu). Traditionally, people would ask for rice from their neighbors, cook it into rice porridge with multicolored beans and brown sugar, and share it with family, friends, and neighbors. A similar tradition, with the same significance, is "seven-family tea" (Chinese: 七家茶; pinyin: qī jiā chá): people would ask each of their neighbors for a few tea leaves and mix them together to lớn brew tea.
For farmers in parts of Trung Quốc, Lixia is traditionally the time of the "three new" crops: cherries, green plums, and millet. These three early-ripening crops are typically ready to lớn be eaten around Lixia, and traditionally some people would use them as religious offerings. In other parts of Trung Quốc, other crops become available around Lixia. Near Zhejiang's Guxi River, people eat Lixia cakes (made from rice or wheat), Chinese scholartree seeds, tofu, and bamboo shoots. A poem from Hangzhou mentions plums, flatcakes, cherries, cured meat, fish, đen thui rice cakes, three-colored amaranth, sea snails, salted duck eggs, roast goose, broad beans, and rice wine fermentation, all of which were associated with Lixia. In contrast, in Taiwan, the arrival of crops is a less relevant part of Lixia, as the warm climate means that a variety of crops are available year-round.
In Tangxi, Hangzhou, in addition to lớn pastries and salted duck eggs, Lixia foods include colorful "Lixia dogs" made from glutinous rice.
Another tradition is weighing people, a complicated process that dates back to lớn ancient Trung Quốc, before the existence of modern scales. Each person is weighed by sitting on a plank suspended from roof beams with hemp rope, or alternatively, an iron weight is hung from one side of the plank while the person sits in a bamboo basket hanging from the other side. This tradition is especially popular with children. With modern technology it has largely disappeared, but it is preserved in some communities as a symbol of good health for the coming summer.
According to lớn folk sayings, Lixia is a busy time for farmers. South of the Yangtze River, it marks the beginning of the rainy season. In some areas, it signifies the kết thúc of the spring tea-picking season.
Historically, people used the sounds of animals on Lixia to lớn predict the year's weather. According to lớn a belief mentioned in the Book of Zhou, if crickets (and according to lớn some interpretations, frogs) bởi not make noise on Lixia, the year will be very rainy with a risk of flooding.
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Date and time
|辛巳||2001-05-05 10:44||2001-05-20 23:44|
|壬午||2002-05-05 16:37||2002-05-21 05:29|
|癸未||2003-05-05 22:10||2003-05-21 11:12|
|甲申||2004-05-05 04:02||2004-05-20 16:59|
|乙酉||2005-05-05 09:52||2005-05-20 22:47|
|丙戌||2006-05-05 15:30||2006-05-21 04:31|
|丁亥||2007-05-05 21:20||2007-05-21 10:11|
|戊子||2008-05-05 03:03||2008-05-20 16:00|
|己丑||2009-05-05 08:50||2009-05-20 21:51|
|庚寅||2010-05-05 14:44||2010-05-21 03:33|
|辛卯||2011-05-05 20:23||2011-05-21 09:21|
|壬辰||2012-05-05 02:19||2012-05-20 15:15|
|癸巳||2013-05-05 08:18||2013-05-20 21:09|
|甲午||2014-05-05 13:59||2014-05-21 02:59|
|乙未||2015-05-05 19:55||2015-05-21 08:43|
|丙申||2016-05-05 01:41||2016-05-20 14:38|
|丁酉||2017-05-05 07:29||2017-05-20 20:33|
|戊戌||2018-05-05 13:26||2018-05-21 02:14|
|己亥||2019-05-05 19:05||2019-05-21 07:57|
|庚子||2020-05-05 00:51||2020-05-20 13:50|
|辛丑||2021-05-05 06:47||2021-05-20 19:37|
|壬寅||2022-05-05 12:25||2022-05-21 01:22|
|癸卯||2023-05-05 18:18||2023-05-21 07:09|
|Source: JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System|
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In the majority of tea areas there are three tea-picking seasons: spring, summer and autumn. From the qingming (clear and bright, fifth of the 24 solar terms) to lớn the lixia (summer begins, seventh of the 24 solar terms) is the spring season