combat

Combat!

1966–67 season color title thẻ with top-billed Rick Jason

Starring
  • Rick Jason
  • Vic Morrow
Country of originUnited States
No. of seasons5
No. of episodes152 (list of episodes)
Production
Executive producerSelig J. Seligman
Running time50 minutes per episode
Production companySelmur Productions
Original release
NetworkABC
ReleaseOctober 2, 1962 –
March 14, 1967

Combat! is an American television drama series that originally aired on ABC from 1962 until 1967. The exclamation point in Combat! was depicted on-screen as a stylized bayonet. The show covered the grim lives of a squad of American soldiers fighting the Germans in France during World War II. The first-season episode "A Day in June" shows D-Day as a flashback, hence the action occurs during and after June 1944. The program starred Rick Jason as platoon leader Second Lieutenant Gil Hanley and Vic Morrow as Sergeant "Chip" Saunders. Jason and Morrow would play the lead in alternating episodes in Combat!.

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Development[edit]

Creator Robert Pirosh's early career in film was defined mainly by comedy films. After his service in World War II, his focus changed đồ sộ telling the stories of lower-rank soldiers. He won an Academy Award for his 1949 screenplay Battleground, and directed 1951's Go for Broke! Both were noted for their realistic depictions of war, accuracy and portraying soldiers grappling with human vulnerabilities and ethical dilemmas. Those factors were central đồ sộ Pirosh when, in 1961, he approached producer Selig Seligman with an idea for a television series. His proposal for an hour-long drama, called Men in Combat, would follow a small squad of enlisted men from their arrival in mainland Europe on D-Day đồ sộ the liberation of Paris. Seligman's Selmur Productions was intrigued, and parent network ABC ordered a pilot.[1]

Pirosh's pilot, "A Day in June", was shot over six days in December 1961.[1] Contemporary newspaper reports called the show Combat Platoon.[2][3] One day was spent shooting on location at Trancas Beach in Malibu, which stood in for Omaha Beach.

Series leads Rick Jason and Vic Morrow were unimpressed by Pirosh's pilot, and Morrow pondered quitting the show, fearing it would damage his career.[1] Between completion of the pilot and greenlighting a full season, Seligman and ABC made several changes, including dropping some characters and altering others. Seligman also dismissed Pirosh and brought in Robert Blees đồ sộ be the series producer. Robert Altman was hired đồ sộ direct, assigned đồ sộ every other episode of the inaugural season.[1]

By April 1962, ABC announced it had picked up the series, now called Combat!, for its fall primetime schedule.[4] The network committed đồ sộ a thirty-episode season, and said Combat! would be complemented by another World War II drama scheduled for Friday nights, called The Gallant Men, where Altman had directed the pilot episode.

Production[edit]

Rick Jason (left) and Vic Morrow in a first-season episode

The series went into production on June 2, 1962[5] and filming got underway on June 11.[6] Episodes typically took six days đồ sộ film, with a mix of soundstage shooting and heavy use of the MGM backlot for outdoor scenes. However, many scenes shot in the Hollywood Hills with parched grasses, eucalyptus trees and sandy soils were clearly unlike northern Europe, especially obvious in the color episodes. The first series opened with "Forgotten Front," telecast at 7:30 p.m. ET on Tuesday, October 2, 1962. Though it was the first đồ sộ be broadcast, "Forgotten Front" was sixth in production order. The pilot, "A Day in June," would air as the eleventh episode, in December.[1]

According đồ sộ Rick Jason, "Our budgets for the first year, including pre-production, production, and post-production, (that is, the entire cost of each negative) was $127,500. In the fifth year (in color) we delivered them for $183,000. Our time schedules were six shooting days. Therefore, on a five-day week, we took a week and one day đồ sộ shoot a show. Here and there, a segment went đồ sộ seven shooting days and everybody in the front offices got a little nervous."[7]

Jason said of the working conditions, "In the first year of the show, Vic and I were given dressing room suites in a building that hadn't been renovated in twenty-five years. We also had no dressing rooms on the outdoor sets (we were thankful just đồ sộ have chairs). Vic went on strike the beginning of the second year and things got much better."[7]

Wesley Britton wrote, "The producers and directors of the series (including Robert Altman, whose work on the show included 10 defining episodes) went the extra mile for establishing credibility and realism. Then and now, viewers see motion picture quality photography as in the long shots very unlike most network television of the period. They had military advisors on hand đồ sộ look over scripts and maps. The cast couldn't shave during the five day shoots đồ sộ help the 'beard continuity.' Except for occasional dialogue, for the most part when the 'Krauts' or 'Jerries' spoke, they did sánh in German. Actor Robert Winston Mercy, who wrote one script and played a number of German officers, told má the uniforms were sánh precisely recreated with correct pipings and insignias that he would cause a stir among Jewish cafeteria workers when he strode in wearing his costume during lunch breaks."[8]

Broadcast history[edit]

Combat! premiered on ABC on October 2, 1962, and was broadcast for five seasons đồ sộ become TV's longest-running World War II drama. In total Combat! aired 152 hour-long episodes. The first 127 episodes, spanning four seasons, were produced in Black and white. The fifth and final season produced 25 color episodes. The show was developed by Robert Pirosh, who wrote the pilot episode.[1]

Cast[edit]

Character Season 1 Season 2 Season 3 Season 4 Season 5
2nd Lt. Gil Hanley Rick Jason
Sgt. "Chip" Saunders Vic Morrow
PFC Paul "Caje" LeMay Pierre Jalbert
Pvt./PFC William G. Kirby Jack Hogan
PFC "Littlejohn" Dick Peabody
PFC "Doc" Walton Steven Rogers
PFC "Doc" Conlan Carter
Pvt. Billy Nelson Tom Lowell
Pvt. Braddock Shecky Greene
Pvt. McCall William Bryant

Recurring Characters: Season 1 only (except Davis who appeared twice in Season 2)

  • Fletcher Fist as Cpl./Pvt. Brockmeyer 7 episodes
  • Joby Baker as Pvt. Kelly 3 episodes (killed in third)
  • John Considine as Pvt. Wayne Temple Jr. 2 episodes (killed in second)
  • Arnold Meritt as Pvt. Jerome Crown 3 episodes
  • Dennis Robertson as Pvt. Albert Baker 7 episodes
  • William Harlow as Pvt. Davis 5 episodes
  • Robert Fortier as Capt. Jampel 3 episodes

Prior đồ sộ portraying Pvt. McCall, William Bryant made three guest appearances throughout the first four seasons. Throughout the whole series, however, Paul Busch portrayed multiple characters, the majority of them being German. Conlan Carter (a newcomer) was nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award in 1964 for his portrayal of PFC "Doc".

Guest cast[edit]

Sal Mineo and Vic Morrow in a 1965 episode

The majority of the guest stars appeared as additional squad members, French citizens or German soldiers. In the first season, the then little-known Ted Knight and Frank Gorshin made appearances. Other notable guest stars included:

Directors[edit]

Directors for the series were:[1]

Military accuracy and authenticity[edit]

From Pirosh's original ideation of Combat!, authenticity was considered important đồ sộ the show. Most of the cast members were veterans of the armed services, with several having served during World War II. Dick Peabody and Shecky Greene served in the U.S. Navy, while Rick Jason served in the Army Air Corps. Vic Morrow served in the Navy in 1947. Jack Hogan served as a Staff Sergeant in the U.S. Air Force during the Korean War, and Conlan Carter served in the U.S. Air Force during the post–Korean War era. Steven Rogers served six months in the U.S. Army.[1] Director Robert Altman served in the Army Air Corps during World War II, flying more than thở 50 bombing missions as a crewman on a B-24 Liberator in the South Pacific. Morrow's character often displays what appears đồ sộ be a USMC cover on his helmet; it is actually a scrap from a camouflage parachute used in the D-Day invasion.

In May 1962, before filming for the series began, Seligman had the principal cast (Jason, Morrow, Rogers, Jalbert and Greene) go through a week of basic training at the Army's Infantry Training Center at Fort Ord in northern California.[9] "We did everything from crawling under barbed wire with live .50 calibre machine bullets whizzing over our heads, đồ sộ swinging across a muddy pond on a rope, đồ sộ pulling the pin on a live grenade and throwing it properly, đồ sộ running an obstacle course," Jason later wrote. "It was much more than thở I’d had đồ sộ tự in [World War II] for my real basic training in the Air Corps."[5]

Morrow noted that the instructors who worked with the cast at Fort Ord had one common request: not đồ sộ act lượt thích John Wayne. "Poor John," Morrow told a reporter. "I wonder if he knows he's almost a dirty word in the Army."[9]

Seligman also asked the Army đồ sộ assign a technical advisor đồ sộ review and offer critique of scripts—specifically, someone who had been present at D-Day and subsequent campaigns. The Army complied, assigning Maj. Homer Jones. He served with the 82nd Airborne's 508th Parachute Infantry, parachuted into northern France on D-Day and participated in four campaigns. Jones had access đồ sộ, and conferred with, Seligman, producer Robert Blees and the show's various directors and technicians đồ sộ ensure the show was staged accurately. He would also arrange for the show đồ sộ borrow Army equipment that could not be furnished by the studio's props department.[9]

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During the battle of Hue during the Vietnam war US troops trying đồ sộ retake the đô thị, not having been trained in urban combat, resorted đồ sộ using tactics for assaulting buildings and clearing rooms they learned from watching Combat!, reportedly đồ sộ great effect.[citation needed]

Syndication[edit]

Combat! has been aired on and off since the 1970s in Greece, Iran, nhật bản, Mexico, Philippines, Brazil, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Chile, Perú, Indonesia, Colombia, Argentina, South Korea, Canada, Venezuela, nước Australia, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Taiwan.

As of February 2023, the Heroes & Icons channel broadcasts the series as part of its Saturday night lineup.

Critical reception[edit]

The show is noted for its realism and character development.

Syndication created a new audience and interested commentators.

Pop culture scholar Gene Santoro has written,

TV's longest-running World War II drama (1962–67) was really a collection of complex 50-minute movies. Salted with battle sequences, they follow a squad's travails from D-Day on—a gritty ground-eye view of men trying đồ sộ salvage their humanity and survive. Melodrama, comedy, and satire come into play as Lieutenant Hanley (Rick Jason) and Sergeant Saunders (Vic Morrow) lead their men toward Paris. Under orders, Hanley keeps sending or leading Saunders and his squad on incessant patrols though they're dead on their feet and always shorthanded; replacements are grease monkeys or cook's helpers who are fodder, and everybody knows it. The relentlessness hollows antihero Saunders out: at times, you can see the tombstones in his eyes.

Most of the first 32 episodes are very good indeed, thanks đồ sộ taut scripts and canny direction... Series developer Robert Pirosh copped an Oscar for writing Battleground: his hard-edged realism is often reflected in the plots.

Later episodes inevitably get uneven, though there are gems throughout... But this TV series, shot on MGM back lots when color TVs were rare, remains exceptional.[10]

Rick Jason and Luise Rainer in 1965

Wesley Britton, son of a World War II veteran, wrote, "Unless you watched Combat! during its original 1962–1967 lập cập, you might not know just how popular and influential the program was... In a league of its own, Combat! was aptly titled as considerable time was spent with the American soldiers engaged in machine gun fire fights and explosions while the soundtrack was filled with the martial horns and drums of the rousing Leonard Rosenman score. Combat! was also distinguished by its grim and realistic stories that frequently had only the most minimal of dialogue, and that often being only quick orders from Sgt. Saunders đồ sộ his unit while they were on the move."[8]

Britton added, "The 25 episodes of the fifth and final season of Combat!, the only one broadcast in color, maintained the high-quality of the show sánh well established in the first four years. One major change was a move from MGM studios đồ sộ CBS which meant, among other matters, a new sound crew and different props. Further, in this season the color was especially memorable as most viewers were accustomed đồ sộ seeing World War II in black-and-white lượt thích the newsreels of the war years. However, using color resulted in a variety of production problems such as the lack of usable stock footage. But the show wasn't simply spectacular explosion fests, although most episodes opened and closed with violent skirmishes believably orchestrated by the special effects crew."[8]

In 1997, TV Guide ranked the episode "Survival" #74 on its list of the 100 Greatest Episodes.[11]

Original tie-In novels[edit]

Over the course of the series lập cập, Lancer Books released three original paperback novels based on it by Harold Calin, a genre novelist who was concurrently building a catalog as one of the publisher's mainstay authors of WWII novels. The titles are Combat! (1963), Combat!: Men Not Heroes (1963) and Combat!: No Rest for Heroes (1965). The books represent their author's adaptive "take" on the TV series—a kind of "alternate storytelling universe" that was similar, if not exact—rather than thở strictly adhering đồ sộ canonistic details and continuity. It's likely that Calin got the tie-in commission from Lancer before the series aired, and had đồ sộ produce the first book đồ sộ hit the stands shortly after the show debuted; thus he may have had little more đồ sộ go on than thở some publicity material and/or a pilot script (and the series would change significantly from the pilot) and/or a show bible, and had đồ sộ make best guesses without the opportunity đồ sộ see an actual episode. In that pre-VCR era, even actual episodes would only have been available đồ sộ him as they aired, with no way đồ sộ preserve them for reference. And in that circumstance, a number of tie-in writers would likewise create similarly "approximate" novels, whose follow-ups might remain consistent đồ sộ their own internal continuity.

Interestingly, an original novel that more accurately presents the series tone and characters—whose author had clearly had time đồ sộ absorb a number of aired episodes before writing—is one that was crafted for younger readers: Combat!: The Counterattack by Franklin M. Davis Jr (1964, Whitman Publishing, pulp pages, laminated cardboard hardcover), who himself had a long and distinguished military career and thereafter became an author of war novels and thrillers.

Other media[edit]

Coloring books, board and Clip games, and home page truyền thông media inspired by the show include:

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  • In 1963, Saalfield Publishing published a 144-page coloring book based on the television show. A second coloring book was published the following year, featuring a different cover.[12]
  • In 1963, the Ideal Toy Company released a board game whose cover featured images of Lt. Hanley and Sgt. Saunders along with the show's logo. However, the game itself had nothing đồ sộ tự with the series; it was a World War II strategy game for two players, each controlling six soldiers. The game had two basic benchmarks for victory: capture the opposing headquarters, or capture all of the other player’s soldiers.[13]
  • The Super Famicom game, Sgt. Saunders' Combat!, was based on the television show and released only in nhật bản. It allowed players đồ sộ re-enact crucial World War II battles in Western Europe and North Africa. The names of fictional officers in addition đồ sộ real-world officers (i.e., Karl Bülowius, Joachim Peiper, and Anthony McAuliffe) are used in order đồ sộ maintain a sense of historical accuracy.
  • Image Entertainment has released the entire series on DVD (Region 1). They released each season in two-volume sets in 2004 and 2005. However, all episodes are the time-compressed versions that were distributed by Worldvision Enterprises for syndication; each comes in at 46 đồ sộ 47 minutes, instead of the original runtime, which was 50 đồ sộ 51 minutes.[14]
  • On October 9, 2012, Image Entertainment released a five-DVD collection of trăng tròn episodes called Combat! – 50th Anniversary Fan Favorites.[15]
  • On November 12, 2013, Image released Combat! – The Complete Series, a 40-disc phối that features all 152 episodes of the series.[16]

See also[edit]

  • Tour of Duty, a similar series phối in the Vietnam War that ran from 1987 đồ sộ 1990
  • Episodes list

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Davidsmeyer, Jo (1996, 2008) Combat! A Viewer's Companion đồ sộ the Classic WWII TV Series. Sarasota, Florida: Strange New Worlds.
  2. ^ Hardester, Ralph (December 28, 1961). "TV Today and Tomorrow". Fox Lake (Wisconsin) Representative. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  3. ^ No byline (December 12, 1961). "Rick Jason Signs for Role in New Series". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  4. ^ No byline (April 18, 1962). "'Combat' is New Series". Baltimore Evening Sun. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  5. ^ a b Jason, Rick (2000). "Basic Training and Basic Eating". Scrapbooks of My Mind. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  6. ^ No byline (June 1, 1962). "Actors 'Report' đồ sộ Fort Ord". Oakland Tribune. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  7. ^ a b Jason, Rick (July 2000). "Vic Morrow". Scrapbooks of My Mind: A Hollywood Autobiography by Rick Jason. Strange New World. ISBN 978-0-9701624-0-3. Retrieved August 24, 2013 – via www.scrapbooksofmymind.com.
  8. ^ a b c Britton, Wesley (July 29, 2013). "DVD Review: Combat! The Complete Fifth Season". BC: Blog Critics. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  9. ^ a b c Penton, Edgar (January 27, 1963). "Combat: Unit Is Mythical, But GIs Got 'Basic,' Just the Same". Green Bay Press-Gazette. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  10. ^ Santoro, Gene (March–April 2011). "Infantrymen on the Small Screen". World War II. Leesburg, Virginia: Weider History Group. 25 (6): 69. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
  11. ^ "Special Collector's Issue: 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time". TV Guide. June 28 – July 4, 1997.
  12. ^ "1964 Combat Coloring Book". Worthpoint. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  13. ^ "Combat". Board trò chơi Geek. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  14. ^ Combat: Season 1 – Campaign 1 : DVD Talk Review of the DVD Video. Retrieved 2010-01-19.
  15. ^ Lambert, David (July 3, 2012). "Combat! – '50th Anniversary Fan Favorites' 5-DVD Set Arrives in October". TVShowsOnDVD.com. Archived from the original on July 5, 2012. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
  16. ^ "Combat! DVD news: Announcement for Combat! – the Complete Series | TVShowsOnDVD.com". Archived from the original on January 2, 2014. Retrieved January 2, 2014.

Bibliography

  • Davidsmeyer, J. (1996, 2008) Combat! A Viewer's Companion đồ sộ the Classic WWII TV Series. Strange New Worlds: Sarasota, Florida. (ISBN 978-0-9701624-3-4)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has truyền thông media related đồ sộ Combat!.

  • Combat! at IMDb